On Optimal Trajectories of Space Flight to the Moon in the Earth-Moon-Sun System
New trajectories for space flight from the Earth to the Moon founded recently are studied in the paper. These trajectories, unlike usual ones of direct flight to the Moon, use at first a flight beyond the Moon and the Earth sphere of influence, at a distance of about 1.5 m km from the Earth and only then a flight to the Moon. In this case a celenocentric flight near the Moon takes place not along a hyperbolic orbit but along an unstable elliptic one, that is a temporary capture by the Moon. This results in essential economy of a fuel outlay when braking the spacecraft (SC) motion near the Moon for transfer to a final stable orbit of the Moon's satellite or for a soft landing on its surface. A qualitative analysis of the Sun's perturbations for increasing a perigee distance of the SC orbit as well the Earth's perturbations for decreasing a celenocentric energy of the SC motion is given. Characteristics of a trajectories of the space flight from the Earth to the Moon received by a numerical integration of the SC motion equations in the Earth-Moon-Sun system are presented.
flight to Moon, optimal trajectories, braking near Moon, gravity perturbations, capture by Moon.